Who Propounded the Tashkent Agreement in 1966

The agreement between India and Pakistan, which ended the largest military dispute over territorial disputes since World War II, was signed on January 10, 1966 in Tashkent, the capital of the then Uzbekistan SSR. When negotiations began, the conflict between India and Pakistan seriously threatened stability in the region. This conflict between two major regional powers threatened to escalate into a much larger war involving other states. India was threatened by China, which was then an ally of Pakistan. Beijing has accused Delhi of aggression. The conference was considered a great success and a statement was issued that was hoped would provide a framework for lasting peace by declaring[1] that the Indian and Pakistani armed forces would meet no later than September 25. February 1966 to their positions before the conflict, their pre-August lines[1]; [3] Neither nation would interfere in the internal affairs of the others; economic and diplomatic relations would be restored; There would be an orderly transfer of prisoners of war, and the two leaders would work to improve bilateral relations. [3] Tashkent Agreement (January 10, 1966), signed an agreement between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri (who died the next day) and Pakistani President Ayub Khan, which ended the 17-day war between Pakistan and India from August to September 1965. The United Nations Security Council concluded an armistice on September 22, 1965. Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan met in Tashkent on January 4, 1966.

The two leaders signed a pact called the Tashkent Declaration of 1966. In accordance with the Tashkent Declaration, talks were held at the ministerial level on 1 and 2 March 1966. Despite the fact that these talks were unproductive, diplomatic exchanges continued throughout the spring and summer. The results were not achieved in these talks because there was disagreement on the Kashmir issue. The news of the Tashkent declaration shocked the People of Pakistan, who expected more concessions from India than they received. Things deteriorated further when Ayub Khan declined to comment and withdrew instead of announcing the reasons for signing the agreement. Protests and riots broke out in various parts of Pakistan. [3] To assuage the anger and concerns of the people, Ayub Khan decided to present the case to the people by addressing the nation on January 14, 1966.

It was the difference with the Tashkent Declaration that eventually led to the removal of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from Ayub`s government, who later founded his own party, the Pakistan People`s Party. Although Ayub Khan was able to satisfy the concerns of the people, the Tashkent declaration severely damaged his image and was one of the factors that led to his overthrow. [8] The 50th anniversary of the Tashkent Declaration, an agreement to end hostilities between India and Pakistan, was celebrated on Sunday, January 10. The declaration was signed in the Soviet Union after the mediation of Soviet diplomacy under the personal leadership of Alexei Kosygin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers. This document is considered one of the best examples of diplomatic mediation by the Soviet Union in world politics, even if the resulting peace did not last long. II The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn from positions held before 5 August 1965 no later than 25 February 1966 and that both parties shall abide by the terms of the ceasefire on the armistice line. Despite this tragic event, the Tashkent Declaration was considered a great success of Soviet diplomacy in the resolution of international conflicts. The statement was not well received in India. The deal was backed by the Indian National Congress Party and the Communist Party of India, but opposition parties said the peace treaty had demoralized the country.

In India, the people also criticized this agreement because the President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India have not signed a pact on guerrilla warfare in Kashmir. After the day of this statement, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur died of a sudden heart attack. After him, no one accepted this statement and it was ignored by the next government. The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on January 10, 1966, which settled the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Peace had been achieved on 23 September thanks to the intervention of external powers, which urged the two countries to a ceasefire, fearing that the conflict would intensify and involve other powers. [1] [2] However, the ceasefire was fragile and the conflict could have resumed at any time. Sensing the need for a more binding agreement, the Soviet Union offered to act as a mediator, with the personal participation of Kosygin, the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. According to contemporaries` memoirs, Kosygin played a crucial role in finding a solution to the Indo-Pakistani conflict, as he enjoyed the trust of both sides. An agreement signed in the Soviet city of Tashkent by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan to end the Second Indo-Pakistani War in Kashmir.

The two countries agreed not only to withdraw their troops from each other`s territory and take back their prisoners of war, but also to begin normalizing diplomatic relations. Unfortunately, the proposed start of India-Pakistan friendly relations was complicated by Shastri`s death just hours after the signing of the agreement. .